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Water saving is considered all over the world as one measure to avoid water scarcity and to improve aquatic ecosystems. In the following paragraph the Consultant has made an overview of the state of the art of Water Saving Policies and Practices in Europe and all over the world.

In fact the EU was the first governmental body to issue the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, an EU directive which commits European Union member states to achieve in an integrated way good qualitative and quantitative status of all water bodies.

Water saving best practices in Marondera are recommended.

Water saving can be defined as the reduction of the total water supply needs within a river basin.

Measure to save water can be taken on the supply (e.g. abstraction permissions), demand (e.g. reduce leakages) or consumption side (e.g. reduce the water in certain products). It can be achieved by improving the efficiency of various uses of water without decreasing services or by cutting back the use of a resource, even if that means cutting back the goods and services produced by using that resource.

There are several water saving measures to reduce water use, which can be basically divided into two parts:

  1. technical measures (changes in supply, network improvement, repair leaks, installation of water saving devices, etc.)
  2. non-structural measures (information, education, pricing) that may change consumptive habits and/or lead to infrastructure improvements.

In agriculture, important water savings can be mainly achieved at two levels:

  • recycling of treated wastewater;
  • reducing leakages in conveyance canals, applying more efficient irrigation practices at the field level, by selecting better agricultural practices reducing water stress/water demand or by changes crops and cropping pattern.

The main technologies for water saving in the urban, peri-urban areas which have been developed and tested, are the following:

  • Water harvesting (urban drainage and MAR);
  • Separation of used waters (grey water, faecal, urine….);
  • Decentralized treatments;
  • Implementation of water saving devices and more efficient appliance in the households;
  • Non-Revenue Water (NRW) reduction in the water supply networks.


  • Keep your showers to four minutes. Taking shorter showers is one of the best ways to help conserve water.
  • Wait until your dishwasher or washing machine is fully loaded before you turn it on.
  • Turn off the tap while you brush your teeth or shave.
  • Wash your vegetables and rinse dishes in a plugged sink or basin – not under a running tap.
  • Install a AAA rated water saving showerhead and water efficient taps to save on water and energy costs.


  • Fit a trigger nozzle to your garden hose and water by hand before 10 am and after 4 pm.
  • Use a broom or rake rather than a hose to clean your driveways and hard surfaces.
  • Plant for the climate and soil in your area.
  • Apply 7 – 10 cm of mulch around plants to help save water lost through evaporation.
  • Wash your car with a trigger nozzle on the lawn so that you water and fertilise the grass at the same time.
  • Water your garden using a trigger nozzle or watering can


  • Check your plumbing and fix any leaks that waste water. One leaking tap can waste up to 2,000 litres a month.
  • Get to know your water meter. If the numbers on it are turning while no water is being used in your home, you could have a leak.
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